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Introduction to the Field

Introduction

Definition
The study of how people behave in Organizations.
Organizing
Definition
The division and coordination of labor for goal accomplishment.
Division of Labour
Nature of Work - Labor & Managerial
Specialization - Horizontal & Vertical
Work Design
Coordination of Labour
Mutual Adjustment
Direct Supervision
Standardization of Output
Standardiztion of Skills
Standardization of Process
Goals
Objectives which bind a group of people together.
The Short and Glorious History of Organizational Behaviour The Industrial Revolution
Social Darwinism & The Protestant Work Ethic
Scientific Management - The One Best Way
Human Relations
The Administrative Era
The Quantitative School
Systems Theory

Individuals

Personality
Reactions
Emotions
Actions
Patterned Thought
Conscious Thought
Perception
Observation |
          +        |   --->  Conclusion
Assumption |
Values
Definition
Socialization
Definition
Learning
Theory
Classical
Stimulous -> Response
Operant
Response -> Stimulous
Social Learning Theory
                    Cognition

                /                     \

Environment      --      Behavior
(Stimulous)                (Response)
Principles
Arousal or Motivation
Create an Association
Reinforcement
Apply Positive (Reinforcement)
Apply Negative (Punishment)
Withhold Positive (Extinction)
Withhold Negative (Negative Reinforcement)
Motivation
Definition
Decision Making
Classical
Perfect Knowledge
Optimizing
Administrative
Bounded Rationality
Satisficing
Stress
Definition
Career Development
Definition

Groups

Definition
Two or more people who:
a) have a common Objective
b) interCT frequently face to face
c) see themselves as a group
d) see themselves as different from other groups.
Stages of Group Development
Forming
Getting to know each other
Storming
Sorting out the pecking order
Norming
Emergence of behavior standards
Performing
accomplishing meaningful task work
Separating
disolution of the group
Group Structure
1. Norms
agreed upon standards of behaviour that emerge as a result of member interaction.
Primary function is to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour.
2. Roles
Definition
a position with a set of expected behaviours.
Assigned
formally prescribed by the organization.
Emergent
develop from the needs of the situation
Task Roles
doing the job
Relations Roles
group maintenance roles
Self Oriented Roles
meeting ones own needs
3. Size
Number of people in the group
3-20 people
ideally 5
Factors affected by size:
a. Social Interaction
b. Member Participation
c. Member Identification (Success)
d. Leader Demands and Direction
e. Domination by Group Members
f. Formalization: rules & procedures
4. Status
Definition
rank, social position or prestige given a group member. a. Achieved Status
accomplishment b. Ascribed Status
inherited social or organizational position Consequences
a) Reinforces authority hierarchy
b) Communication
c) Member aspirations
d) Self Image
e) Negative
Group Processes
1. Conformity
Definition
reasons for conforming to the group norms. Process
a) Compliance
conform due to real or imagined pressure.
b) Identification
conform due to respect or admiration for another.
c) Internalization
conform due to beliefs and values.
Questions
Which is most common?
Which is most desirable?
2. Socialization
Definition
the process whereby people learn the norms of the group necessary to function effectively in the group.
Types
Normal
Occurs as we join an organization - orientation
Forced
commonly called Brainwashing
3. Cohesion
Definition
members desire to remain in or commitment to the group.
Consequences
a) More participation
b) More conformity
c) More success
d) Feeling of oneness
Questions
A Chain is only as strong as it's weakest link
Prove yourself in order to get in Rites of Passage
Decision Making
1. Types of Decisions
1. Programmed
decisions made according to established principles and policies. 2. Nonprogrammed
decisions needed for new or unusual situations.
2. Problem Solving
1. Traditional
a. Identify/define the problem
considered most important step, get this wrong and nothing else matters. b. Identify alternatives
brainstorm for solutions to the problem. c. Evaluate alternatives
weigh pros and cons of each alternative. d. Select best alternative
based on the evaluation select the best alternative. e. Implement the choice
implement the selected alternative.
2. Alternate
a. Precisely state the problem
considered most important step, get this wrong and nothing else matters. b. Identify necessary conditions for solution of the problem
what conditions have to be satisfied for the problem to be solved. c. Brainstorm for solutions
brainstorm for possible solutions. d. Does the proposed solution meet the conditions stated in b above?
evaluate the proposed solution against the conditions for the solution of the problem - will this proposal solve the problem? e. Can any solutions be combined to meet the conditions in b above
after a couple proposals have been made, consider if some of them can be combined to reach a solution. f. Repeat steps c, d & e until a solution is found.
repeat the process is until a solution is found.
3. Decision Making Models
a. Rational-Economic Model
Assumptions
perfect knowledge
optimizing
b. Administrative Model
Assumptions
imperfect knowledge
satisficing
Competition

Organizations

Reward systems
What gets rewarded, gets done!
Systems
Values
Culture
Power
Conflict
Change
Leadership